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In 2002, of all the calves that died, 62% of deaths were due to scours, according to the USDA NAHMS. All too quickly, diarrhea can lead to dehydration, acidosis and ultimately, a deadly heart attack.
What is Scours?
Scours is a general term for a disease process which results in a disturbance in the flow of water back and forth, between the blood and the intestine (gut).
The normal calf transports about 100 liters (about 26.4 gallons) of water across the gut wall into the intestine and reabsorbs this 100 liters back into the body via the blood, throughout the day.
As needed, the water flows to the lumen of the intestine for the purpose of aiding digestion and back to the blood for the purpose of absorbing nutrients, maintaining blood pH and distributing oxygen throughout the body.
When water gets stuck in the lumen and cannot get back to the body, this excess water becomes part of the stool and appears as diarrhea. The loss of body fluids via stool leads to dehydration.
Scours, left unchecked, may progress through four stages:
4. Death from acidosis
Causes of Scours
The causes of scours are varied and can occur from exposure to viruses, bacteria, protozoa or various nutritional problems.
These microbial or nutritional causes of scours can often interrupt and damage (usually temporary if corrected quickly) the internal system at the villi and crypt cell level that regulate the continuous back and forth flow of water between the intestinal lumen and the body (via the blood).
Treatment must begin before you have time to determine the exact cause.
When water loss reaches 12-15% of body weight, death is likely to occur. Since a scouring calf can lose about 7 lbs. of water per day, death can occur in just two days. Death actually occurs as a result of dehydration. Potassium imbalance across the cell membrane leads to pH imbalance in the blood which leads to acidosis and ultimately heart attack.
Remember, when the blood pH falls below 7.2, calves lose ability to suck, ability to blink (in response to a quick moving hand close to the eye), skin response to touch, head movement and ability to stand. The sicker the calf becomes, the less able he is to help himself. Therefore, the sicker the calf becomes, the more the farmer's help is needed to keep him alive.
Tools such as the esophageal feeder, used to deliver electrolytes and milk feedings, can help compensate for calves’ lack of ability to suck or drink and can be less costly than special Sub Q or IV electrolyte infusion. IV electrolytes which bypass the intestines may be necessary, at times, for fastest response in most severe cases.
To make matters worse, all calf electrolyte solutions currently on the market contain so much dextrose, also called glucose, that they can actually make diarrhea worse!
Why? In attempting to achieve osmotic balance, the body tries to dilute the excess dextrose from the electrolyte solution that arrives in the intestine, by sending crucial fluid from the blood, where it is needed, back to the gut.
The fluid sent back to the gut often ends up creating more watery stool instead of returning to the blood. This unfavorable flow is called "osmotic penalty."
C.H.E.E.R.S. Third Generation Electrolyte Formulation Is Derived From Discoveries by the World Health Organization. A Unique Maltodextrin Formula Was Originally Used to Avoid Osmotic Penalty And Save Millions of Infants & Adults In Third World Countries From Dehydration and Death...when IV Solutions Were Unavailable or Unaffordable.
After a decade of research with livestock, Nouriche Nutrition's C.H.E.E.R.S. Oral Electrolyte Solution was adapted, engineered and refined to deliver a unique balance of water transporting digestible maltodextrin, electrolytes, metabolites and advanced acid neutralizers that calves need for quick and continuous fluid and energy transport into the blood and body. And, C.H.E.E.R.S. eliminates the osmotic penalty caused by dextrose based electrolyte solutions like no other for livestock, without interfering with milk digestion.
Unlike high concentration dextrose electrolyte formulas, C.H.E.E.R.S. uses a uniquely digestible maltodextrin, made up of glucose (dextrose) polymers to facilitate transport of water from the gut to the blood. Maltodextrin acts as one unit of osmotic pressure in the intestine while actually delivering and staging a great supply of glucose to the intestine. Older technology dextrose-based formulas deliver high concentrations of sugar solute to the gut that impose osmotic pressure, To balance the sugar solute levels between the blood and the intestine, separated by the semi-permeable gut wall, osmosis draws vital water unfavorably from the blood into the gut, to dilute the concentrated dextrose solute. This unfavorable process of sending water out of the blood where it is needed, back to the intestine can exacerbate scours, lead to acidosis, and is called "osmotic penalty."
- Replace lost electrolytes which are needed to facilitate water
- Help maintain proper pH equilibrium in blood to prevent dehydration
and acidosis and depression. Depression refers to the outward
symptoms of metabolic acidosis -- losing ability to such and stand.
- Help maintain muscle fitness and tissue development.
Metabolizable Bases/Acid Neutralizers -
Citrate, Acetate & Propionate and Calcium Acetate:
- Increase water absorption for blood volume maintenance and
- Provide metabolic energy for body functions.
- Contains no sodium bicarbonate and won't interfere with milk
Glycine & Carbohydrate Water Transporters Work
When Primary Salt-Water Channel Is Disrupted
- Even when the primary sodium-water transport channel within the
intestinal villi is disrupted by bacteria, viruses or stress,
glucose and glycine can still be effective carriers of water across
the gut wall
- C.H.E.E.R.S. uses two solutes, Glucose from Complex
Carbohydrate, and Glycine, an amino acid. Both solutes
quickly transport electrolytes and water to the blood,
even when the primary sodium-water channel is disrupted
Palatable, Digestible & Convenient
- Orange flavored. Mixes easily in warm water (105-120 degrees F).
- Will require slightly more mixing than dextrose solutions because of
larger carbohydrate molecule size but the small amount of extra
effort is worth the superior results.
- Contains no bicarbonate and won't interfere with digestion.
- Balances pH, won't interfere with feed digestion.
When To Use C.H.E.E.R.S.
Use C.H.E.E.R.S. during mild and moderate dehydration, when calves lose up to 8% of body weight.
Symptoms: loose watery stool, droopy ears, slight recession of eyeballs and skin tenting (requires 1-3 seconds for skin to return to smooth position after being pinched).
Once calves reach the severe stage, losing 9-11% of body weight, with eyes clearly sunken into sockets and skin tented for 4 seconds or more, IV or SubQ electrolytes are recommended to prevent death.
#9898-4B 25 lb Bag
#9898-34 10 lb Pail
#9898-L7 3.5 lb Pail
Most Advanced Calf
NO Sodium Bicarbonate
OF CALF SCOURS
Ideal for Calves Suffering from Scours & Diarrhea
Rapidly Replenishes Fluids & Electrolytes
Unique Complex Carbohydrate Base Facilitates Water
Absorption From The Intestine To The Blood and Tissues
Carbohydrate Reduces Osmotic Penalty vs Dextrose Base
Multiple Metabolizable Bases Help Correct Blood pH and Counter Metabolic Acidosis
Allows Continuous Feeding of Milk - No Sodium Bicarb
Provides Multiple Sources of Energy
A Baby Calf's Body Is Over 75% Water
Water Is Needed To:
Provide 10% of body weight needed each day plus replenish net water lost due to diarrhea, to avoid dehydration. Dehydration can lead to impaired growth, tissue damage, acidosis, coma heart attack and even death.
Keep osmotic pressure favorable for sustained digestion and nutrient absorption into the blood
Maintain blood volume to balance pH and inhibit the onset of acidosis
Maintain blood volume to bring oxygen to the brain for alertness and coordination
For Calves Requiring Additional Electrolytes and Fluid - Feed 2 quarts (4 lb) of electrolyte solution per calf 2-3 times daily between feedings. Feed C.H.E.E.R.S. electrolyte solutions through esophageal feeder if needed.
C.H.E.E.R.S. does not interfere with milk digestion. The unique combination of acid neutralizers in C.H.E.E.R.S. allows continued feeding of milk so, calves get energy to fight the illness plus nutrition to continue tissue development. Withholding milk can lead to thymus atrophy which retards the immune system and growth.
Sodium Bicarbonate Interferes with Milk Digestion & Calf Performance
Electrolytes that contain sodium bicarbonate help neutralize acidosis but interfere with milk digestion. Because of this interference, milk must be withheld from calves. When milk is withheld, calves lose weight, and the thymus gland (critical for immune system function) degenerates. As a result, calf development can be retarded for the whole growing period. C.H.E.E.R.S. does not contain sodium bicarbonate and does not interfere with milk digestion.
Standard Dextrose-Based Solutions Often Cause
“Osmotic Penalty” --
The Unfavorable Flow Of Water Into The Intestine
In an automatic process known as osmosis, the systems of the body seek to achieve equilibrium of concentrations of solutes (particles like salt and sugar) in solvents (blood in this case). Very high concentration of dextrose in the intestines (gut) may actually cause water to flow unfavorably from the blood, to the gut, in an attempt to dilute the dextrose to a level more similar to that of the blood. This unfavorable direction of water flow, due to high concentration of dextrose in the intestines is called osmotic penalty. Athletes who drink high sugar drinks during or after exercise sometimes experience light headedness or fainting. They are experiencing osmotic penalty. Water flows unfavorably from the blood to the gut, to dilute the relatively high concentration of sugar that is waiting in the gut, to cross the gut wall into the blood.
Unique Complex Carbohydrate Sustains Energy & Nutritional Balance Without Osmotic Penalty
Unique Complex Carbohydrate (a carefully researched maltodextrin polymer of glucose molecules) facilitates rapid absorption of electrolytes and water into the blood without "Osmotic Penalty." Osmotic penalty results when highly concentrated simple sugar dextrose/glucose-based electrolyte solutions draw water from the blood to the intestine to dilute the high concentration of dextrose/glucose molecules in the intestine.
While each C.H.E.E.R.S. Complex Carbohydrate maltodextrin molecule is comprised of many glucose molecules, the polymer chain serves to conceal and hold glucose in the intestine without revealing the concentration of glucose within each larger molecule In other words, many glucose molecules create only one unit of "osmotic pressure." Contrast standard livestock electrolyte solutions in which each separate dextrose (glucose) molecule is exposed and acts as a charge of pressure requiring osmotic balancing while waiting to cross the gut.
Our Complex Carbohydrate releases individual glucose molecules only when its polymer bonds are broken at the gut wall, at the instant of absorption, with no time to impose unfavorable osmotic pressure. Sodium and water are immediately absorbed with the glucose into the blood where they are needed and can be distributed to the body.
Because Complex Carbohydrates allow more concentrated dextrose to be stored and staged in the gut before crossing the gut wall (complex chemical bonding reduces osmolarity of glucose), extra glucose (dextrose) is available for extra transport of fluid otherwise “stuck" in the bowels and gut to help reduce volume and duration of diarrhea.
Complex Carbohydrate provides energy and nutritional balance.
The Right Chemistry Working For You
Esophageal feeding is recommended as calves lose ability to suck during scours and dehydration.